in the Caribbean. Under the names Eendracht maakt Macht (Strength in Unity), Voordelig en Voorsigtig (Profitable and Prudent) and Concordia res parvae Crescunt (Through unity small things grow great), three internationally diversified investment trusts attracted 2.5 million guilders between 1774 and the end of the century. However, these three diversified funds represented just a very small proportion of the 1,500 million guilders invested abroad by Dutch investors.

Even after the French invasion of the Dutch Republic in 1795 and the creation of the Batavian Republic, the new issues business continued to grow. One of the most spectacular transactions was the financing of the Louisiana Purchase in 1804 by the Amsterdam banking house Hope & Co. in cooperation with the London firm Baring Brothers, enabling the United States of America to buy from France its colony, Louisiana, an area of 2,100,100 km2, equivalent to 23% of the territory of the modern United States. The kingdoms of Saxony and Prussia and countries such as Spain and Portugal that were occupied by the Emperor Napoleon continued to pre-finance their payments to France in Amsterdam.

VOC COAT OF ARMS AT MIDDLEBURG